|Stochastic Systems Group|
Statistical Methods for 2D-3D Registration of Optical and LIDAR Images
Fusion of 3D laser radar (LIDAR) imagery and aerial optical imagery is an efficient method for constructing 3D virtual reality models. One difficult aspect of creating such models is registering the optical image with the LIDAR point cloud, which is a camera pose estimation problem. We propose a novel application of mutual information registration which exploits statistical dependencies in urban scenes, using variables such as LIDAR elevation, LIDAR probability of detection (pdet), and optical luminance. We employ the well known downhill simplex optimization to infer camera pose parameters. Utilization of OpenGL and graphics hardware in the optimization process yields registration times on the order of seconds. Using an initial registration comparable to GPS/INS accuracy, we demonstrate the utility of our algorithms with a collection of urban images. Our analysis begins with three basic methods for measuring mutual information. We demonstrate the utility of the mutual information measures with a series of probing experiments and registration tests. We improve the basic algorithms with a novel application of foliage detection, where the use of only non-foliage points improves registration reliability significantly. Finally, we show how the use of an existing registered optical image can be used in conjunction with foliage detection to achieve even more reliable registration.
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